The procedure I use is called forging, the controlled shaping of metal by the force of a hammer. This technique makes graceful transitional shapes from a piece of copper tubing. I also use a specialized technique called crimping, where a gentle, radial fold in sheet copper is used to begin the process of raising the material. After the desired form is achieved, a bottom is attached to the vase, or a hook to the wall piece with silver soldering. To remove all the oxidation and borax glass (the left over flux that has been heated during soldering) the piece is soaked in an acid bath. This is called pickling. The chemical is Sparex #2 which works best for nonferrous metals. Along with the easy malleability of copper, it also has the ability to turn many beautiful colors. Chemicals in the air will achieve this, but most coppersmiths prefer to control the process themselves. I am capable of obtaining most colors by the use of heat and chemical reactions to the copper.