The procedure I use is called forging, the controlled shaping of metal by the force of a hammer. This technique makes graceful transitional shapes from a piece of copper tubing. I also use a specialized technique called crimping, where a gentle, radial fold in sheet copper is used to begin the process of raising the material. After the desired form is achieved, a bottom is attached to the vase, or a hook to the wall piece with silver soldering. This is a hard solder that melts at 1280° F. Coating the copper with paste borax (flux) is crucial. Flux, when heated, forms a protective liquid barrier over the copper, preventing further oxidation and giving a pure flow between the joints. To remove all of the oxidation and borax glass (the leftover flux that has been heated), the piece is soaked in an acid bath. This is called pickling. Along with its easy malleability, copper has the ability to turn many beautiful colors using chemicals and heat.